By Julien Le Gros
Ethiopian music may be the most peculiar and mysterious tradition among African musical cultures. From the 1960s onwards, it has been modernized in remarkable ways. This text provides an overview of modern Ethiopian music.
Ethiopian artist Mahmoud Ahmed. Photo: www.theartdesk.com
Ethiopian music is characterized by its moods from the time of Aksoum Kingdom back in the 4th century BC. That kingdom had important ties with both the Roman Empire and India.
Wind instruments were introduced to the country at the end of the 19th century under Negus Ménélik, with the arrival of Italian, English and French delegations. By then, music was already strongly linked with politics.
Apart from short Italian occupation by Dictator Mussolini’s troops, from 1935 to 1940, Ethiopia, unlike many other African countries, has never been colonized. This exceptional situation at the scale of the continent explains partially why the Ethiopian melodies music are so peculiar.
During the long reign of Emperor Haile Selassie I, which started in 1930, the governmental and military band, the Imperial Bodyguard Band, was one of the best. Amazingly enough, an Armenian musician, a survivor from the Armenian genocide named Nersès Nalbandian, played a huge part in it. He was recruited by Emperor Selassie in the 1930s and opened a music school in Addis. Nalbandian has trained many of the best musicians of the country. Those musicians were the elite incorporated in the official orchestras, such as Army band, Police band, Haile Selassie Theater band, etc.
That music moved by a free spirit was flirting with rock’n’roll and twist from that era without losing its roots. To better understand that spirit between tradition and modernity, one should listen to ‘Tezeta’ (meaning ‘nostalgia’ in Amharic) by Mahmoud Ahmed. This powerful song digs deep inside the soul of the country.
Swinging Addis Ababa
This new music was very popular during the 1960s and 1970s with the azmaribets, the local cabarets from the capital city Addis Ababa. During that time the city was even nicknamed ‘Swinging Addis’. From the Stereo Club to Ebony passing through the Axum Adarash clubs, music was everywhere in the streets with a brand new tinge, due to amplified electric instruments. Without ever losing that distinctive soul and scent from thousands of years back, it is as natural and hypnotic as the famous Ethiopian coffee ceremony.
In 1969, Amha Eshété created his own label, Amha Records, despite the imperial censorship. Meanwhile private orchestras performed in the hotels of Addis, such as Ghion band or Ras Band. A wind of freedom was blowing at the end of Haile Sélassié’s reign, but it was brutally stopped by the Revolution of July 1974. The following decade, orchestras were disbanded by the Derg, the regime of Mengestu Haile Mariam. At that time most of the main artists of that music were struggling to survive. “It was not easy during that time,” singer Mahmoud Ahmed reckons. In 1972 singer Getachew Kassa sang an eponymous pop song. Such a masterpiece is also tell-tale of the musical and cultural emancipation the country witnessed in that era. At the time the tune was released with 3000 copies, a major hit at the national level.
Mahmoud Ahmed: The Ethiopian Elvis
Among the wave of modern Ethiopian musicians, the career of Mahmoud Ahmed is one of the most remarkable. The modest shoe shiner from the Gurage tribe has managed, thanks to his talent and strength, to find his way as a musician in Addis Ababa. “I was seated on my shoe box,” the singer recalls. “I was listening to Ethiopian music on Hailé Selassié’s radio. There was a program every Tuesday and Thursday. I could listen to the music of Menelik Wesnatchew, Kassa Tessema, Bizunesh Bekele, Tilahun Gessesse. It was a time with an enormous musical creativity. ”
Soon an artistic calling grew in that man, with a golden voice and swinging legs inspired by none other than Elvis Presley. “I saw him in a film, ” he says. “He was dancing well and I have imitated the way he moved his legs, his way of shaking. ”
In 1962 the owner of Arizona Club in Addis hired Mahmoud as a handyman. Then he got the chance to sing for the Imperial Bodyguard Band. It was a great time for Mahmoud: “At that time I could see the emperor many times. We even played at the Palace”. In 1974 with the revolution, the orchestra was disbanded. Dictatorship would last until 1991.
Meanwhile, Mahmoud did his best to survive with other bands, such as Ibex band and Roha band. For years he was no longer in the spotlight – until the huge success in 1986 of his hit ‘Ere mela mela’.
In 2015 Mahmoud Ahmed embarked on a world tour with a French group, Badume’s Band. This band has been touring with him for more than 10 years, backing other Ethiopian veterans like the great singerAlemayehu Eshete.
New York (TADIAS) — Ethiopia’s Genzebe Dibaba and USA’s Ashton Eaton have been named the
2015 World Athletes of the Year.
The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) made the announcement on Thursday
“after outstanding and memorable seasons which saw both athletes break world records and strike
gold at the IAAF World Championships Beijing 2015,” IAAF News reports.
“Both athletes set world records during 2015, Eaton in the decathlon and Dibaba in the 1500m, and
won gold medals in these events at the IAAF World Championships Beijing 2015.”
“I am humbled and honoured to receive this award from the IAAF,” said Genzebe via Twitter. “It
feels so good to be the World Athlete of the Year
Adwa is a place in the mountains of Northern Ethiopia. It harbors a history 120 years old that belongs to Ethiopians in all corners of the country. It is a place where Ethiopian troops of 200,000 citizens fought for independence from Italian colonization. King Menelik II and his Queen Taytu Bitul led the war by travelling a total of 1010 Kms across the country from the capital Addis Ababa to Adwa. The journey’s start date 120 years ago would be on October 13th this year (2015), which is also the launching date of this website. The war ended victoriously for Ethiopians on March 1, 1896 after five months of walk to Adwa with an Ethiopian army built out of people with different languages, cultures and beliefs but with one strong bond, being Ethiopian. This is a bright history of courage, strong leadership, unity and discipline that paid off in a thirst quenching victory.
Guzo Adwa is a walk to Adwa from the capital Addis Ababa covering 1010 kms in commemoration of the fight in our fore fathers to protect their land. This walk has been done for the last consecutive two years to start a trend of celebrating the Victory of Adwa from the beginning of the journey to battle through the series of wars that led to the final victory at Adwa.
This year the Guzo Adwa will take place for third time. It is planned to travel with 120 People for the 120th celebration of Adwa. The registration of the third Walk to Adwa form Addis Ababa will be open starting from Monday November 30 2015. Anyone who is interested to the walk can register at Balageru travel office which is found in Taitu hotel piazza.
fig 1 Taitu hotel
It is a good news that Ethiotelecom announcing 4G implementation in Addis Ababa. The new network is reported to be capable of providing service for up to 400,000 Addis Ababa customers. Now the next big challenge is who can tap into this latest 4th generation 4G network as it has device limitation of which smartphones are compatible with the new network.
The agency might be able to provide a 4G compatible device. However, many users already have a preferred and high brand smartphones, which most of them might not be able to support the new 4G network.
Some of the big brands supporting 4G network are: Samsung Galaxy (S4, S5), Samsung Galaxy (Note 2, Note 3), iPhone (5, 5S), HTC One (M7, M8), LG (G2, G3), Sony Xperia (Z, Z2), Nokia Lumia (920, 925, 928, 1020, 1520). For a complete list of internationally (not necessarily Ethiopia specific) 4G enabled devices
Undoubtedly, 4G is ten times more faster than 3G mobile broadband. Let’s see what the actual difference between 3G and 4G networks is.
So, what is the actual difference in speeds f or 3G and 4G networks? The most import ant thing to know is that there is a difference between “technical” speeds and the actual “offered” speeds. Technically, 4G networks must be able to deliver speeds up to 1GB per second. However it hasn' t been achieved yet even in any existing 4G LTE mobile networks here in the USA. I have a 4G LTE service, and the most I am getting on average is between 1220Mbps download and 48Mbps upload depending on my location; that is only about 2% of the technically specified capability.